Backgrounder - Universal Periodic Review of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the United Nations (UN) Human Rights Council in Geneva

Review on 15 November 2022

UN Human Rights Council Geneva

As part of the UN Human Rights Council, the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a unique UN process in which all 193 UN Member States periodically peer-review other UN Member States with as ultimate goal the improvement of the protection and promotion of human rights in every country.

It provides an opportunity for all States to declare what actions they have taken to protect and promote human rights in their countries since their last review. The UPR also includes a sharing of best human rights practices around the globe.

The Universal Periodic Review process is unique within the UN. It is the only UN mechanism that addresses all human rights issues: economic, social, cultural, political, civil, and the principles of International Humanitarian Law. It is a universal UN mechanism in which all 193 UN Member States peer-review other states, to ensure universality of coverage and equal treatment with respect to all States. This peer-review assessment with recommendations made to States by other States is to improve their human rights situation. On average, a state under review receives 200 recommendations per review.

Under the UPR, the human rights situation of all UN Member States is reviewed every 4.5 years.

The UPR was established when the Human Rights Council was created on 15 March 2006. The Council was mandated to undertake a universal periodic review. The first UPR cycle started in April 2008 and currently the 4th cycle is taking place.

Besides the review by States, NGOs can submit information which can be added to the “other stakeholders” report.

UPR and the review of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

During the first session of the 4th cycle of the UPR, the UN Member States review the four countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands: the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten.

The four countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are all democratic states governed by the rule of law.

The Kingdom of the Netherlands firmly believes that respect for human rights fosters security, development and prosperity and supports a strong Human Rights Council. The Council is an indispensable forum for promoting respect for human rights, addressing violations and abuses, making recommendations and sharing experience.

The UPR mechanism provides an interactive and open dialogue in which all UN Member States can give others recommendations on the protection and promotion of human rights in other Member States. During the UPR session of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, 108 States from all regions in the world will give their recommendations to improve human rights in the four countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

The adoption of the recommendations will take place during the 52nd Human Rights Council in March 2023.

For more information about the UPR: